Photo: Destroying villages to dislocate Amharas farmers from their ancestral location.

Background: Oromuma's Invasion of Ethiopia and Its Associated Genocide

Ethiopia's tumultuous history has been marked by numerous periods of turmoil and destruction, three of which stand out for their enduring damaging impact. The first is from 1527 to 1543 (Richard Pankhurst, 1998), known as Ahmed Ibrahim's Invasion and War of Destruction, followed by the subsequent Oromo Migration towards the Bale Mountains in the southern borders of historical Ethiopia. The second significant episode was "Yodit Gudit's" destruction of the later 10th century. The third was the Fasict Italian Destruction that lasted from 1939 to 1945. All events specifically targeted Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, its heritage, monuments, properties, and institutions. Because of accidental cultural overlap with mainstream Ethiopian cultures, Amharas paid dearly.

During these tumultuous times, monasteries and churches were burnt, and many Christians perished in surprise attacks orchestrated and manned by groups such as the "Gallas" *of the time. Notably, the war led by Mohamed Gragn I (1527) also facilitated the largest Oromo Migration into the Ethiopian Christian hinterland.  (Note: "Galla" is used here to denote a society perceived as barbaric and without fear of God rather than individually referring to speakers of Oromigna.)

Many tribes faced cultural and physical extermination, with their lands subsequently occupied by the incoming Oromo settlers. This influx gradually expanded into regions now known as Arsi, Harar, Bale, Walega, Southern Shewa, and parts of Sidamo, Gamogofa, and Ilu Babor (Donal N. Levine, 2000). As a consequence, many indigenous tribes lost their identity to the cruel culture of the 16th Century. The eyewitness accounts of monk 'Abba Bahriy' in Prof. Getatchew Haile's book, "Yeabba Bahriy Dirsetoch," (2002), supplied sufficient evidence for the above stated historical assertions.

The eclipsing of the savagery of the invaders on the one hand, and the 'cosmopolitan' character of Ethiopians, and most importantly, that of the Amharas, on the other, created Ethiopia's vulnerability to the Oromo's unhindered expansion towards the North. 

The Amhara people's value systems have long emphasized the importance of fair treatment of migrants based on human fraternity. This led to the subsequent permission of intermarriages, garrison townships, and unrestricted mobility within Ethiopia, creating a cultural mosaic that we see today. Emperor Menelik's Declaration (of the 1890s) is a prime example: 'Do not kill a person, even if he is a 'Galla' ( Ethiopian, Oral History). This rule of law and mercy principle was extended to all, regardless of status. In stark contrast, in the 21st Century, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed imposed restrictions on Ethiopians' movement within their own country, even to their own-built Capital City. 

In the 13th century, at the time of King Dawit III (1380-1412), Addis Ababa and its vicinities were Amhara homesteads referred to as Barbara Districts. Eventually, owing to the receptive cultures of Amharas to the Oromos, they made their way into Berbera, overpopulating the now-suburbs of Addis Ababa (which the Oromo politicians in 2024 declared as' Sheger').

In the 21st century, with the ascendance of PM Abiy Ahmed to the pinnacle of Ethiopian power, he resorted to conducting highly intensified demographic changes in Addis Ababa, from settling 1.5 million Oromos to the destruction of the city's social fabric by dispersing people from their ancestral holdings in the city. We do not need rocket science caliber to know the glaring day-to-day reality of Addis Ababa under the Mayorship of an Oromo immigrant.  Addis Ababa's documented possessions in history belong to the Amhara settlers of Ethiopians. Yerer and Kereyu areas, Zekwala monastery, and Thousand-year-old churches found in the city are testimonies to the above fact. There are original manuscripts by monk Abba Bahriy that collaborate with the Oromos migration, and they did not exist in Ethiopia 15th century.

The recent Oromuma invasion is focused on Addis Ababa destroying its history and trying to make it an “Oromo city”, which is seen as an outrageous display of backwardness on the part of Oromo politicians who happened to be in Menelik Palace. Every destruction we see in Addis Ababa in the name of PM Abiy Ahmed's prosperity euphuism is a continuation of the 16th century's irredentist instincts that passed through DNA memory to the current PM of Ethiopia. This tendency cannot mix with civilization and the liberal democracy of 21 century; for that reason, Ethiopians see the solution resting in the complete elimination of the emerging PM Abiy Ahmed's, “Gragn Mahomed II's,” tyranny. 

Four hundred years after the migration of the Oromos into Ethiopia, in the early 1950s, the Oromo politicians started to use the victim card in Ethiopian political dispensations. The 1953 Ethiopian coup, Derg's Land Confiscation Policy of 1974, 1990s Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) and Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) / Oromo People's Democratic Organization (OPDO) redrawing of the Ethiopian administrative map, blaming of the indigenous Ethiopians for Oromos' backwardness, and so forth are results of such social psychology. But, in fact, with the benefits of hindsight, one can confidently argue the action was planned to obtain fertile land, natural resources, and political power in the country. 

Mainly, after WWII, with the training, help, and direction of European Nazi and Fascist-bent governments, Oromo extremist leaders began to eat up the socio-economic base of traditional Ethiopian polity. Germans, Italians, and Turks, Arabs offered countless scholarships for Oromos and immersed them with a mix of Islamic extremist irridentist ideologies and tendencies. European colonial powers provided lavish scholarships for Oromo students for the last 70 years to pursue their agenda of carving out the hereto non-existent 'Islamic Oromo State' from the organic Ethiopian monolithic state to ensure its demise. 

The 21st Century Oromos Whabists, are now targeting Orthodox Christian holdings, cultures, and the faithful as well. The failures of pro-Ethiopia forces to properly thwart the Oromo Wahbist for a long time can be explained by the fact that it went underground and stayed timid for the last 450 years. This timidity is represented by' Peacock' as an emblem of PM Abiy Ahmed's tenure in Ethiopia. 

The advent of the current PM Abiy Ahmed, aka 'Gragn Mohamed II' in the 21st Century, made Ethiopia hell to its citizens. Millions are suffering from the worst form of Genocide, destruction, Christian Killings, dislocations, deliberate mass starvation, and land takeovers on a scale unmatched in history. PM Abiy Ahmed came to power within the ruling EPRDF's reform plan. His destructive power and the pace of implementation of his socio-lethal projects are outrageous and prove that he comes with a deep sense of revenge against all Ethiopians.

More than 11 million people's lives are at risk, and more than 3 million people have died as a result of the civil war led by Abiy Ahmed, leader of the Oromo Prosperity Party (OPDO/OLF Alliances).

In the comparative perspective of the two Oromo invasions, we can discern variations in scale and brutality, and the following can be said. First, there is no exact measure of how the initial Oromo Migration (from 1527 to 1543) and Destruction of the 16th Century upset the demographic map of Ethiopia; however, the contemporary Oromo wave of expansion (Beginning from 1990 up to 2024), especially the years that PM Abiy Ahmed ascended to power (2019); proved to be highly genocidal, savage and manifestly barbaric. The 'Wahabis Oro-Muma' project of dismantling the whole of Ethiopia and taking all its land and its people started with high rage. Second, while the Gragn Mahamed I (16th century) invasion managed to assimilate and occupy the Southern part of Ethiopia and its destruction was limited by the population size of the victims of that time, the 21st Century, Gragn Mohamed II (PM Abiy Ahmed, 2018-2024), however, is having sweeping damage to the core of Ethiopian cultures, people and geographic spaces never seen in the history of the world. 

Therefore, Ethiopians citizens, find themselves in an extraordinary epoch; if they fail to invoke the spirits of Ethiopian unity and forge an anti-genocide alliance across the socio-cultural spectrum against PM Abiy Ahmed's current government, they lose the country sooner than they can imagine it happen. 

Pretoria' Peace Deal': A Coup-De-Grace To A Debilitating Ethiopia?

There are numerous issues to be highly alarmed about, but nothing like the so-called Pretoria 'Peace' Deal of November 2, 2022, which was signed between two partners—the perpetrators of genocide (TPLF and Oromo Prosperity Party/ OPDO)—and their foreign sponsors. 

Hence, it is essential to highlight the dangers placed between the lines of the tripartite pact, which marked the start of another genocidal war against the Ethiopians and, most importantly, against Amharas through Drone massacres of innocent civilians in their tens-thousands.

Primarily, the Pretoria' Peace' deal is a Euphuism designed to cover up the ongoing war of genocide in Amhara regions waged by a covert alliance of TPLF cronies and OPDO, supported by their foreign backers (hence the description tripartite pact applied above). The goal of this section is not to do point-by-point scrutiny but to zoom into the more significant consequences of the 'Deal,' signed in Pretoria, South Africa, between TPLF and the new Oromuma Wahabis Government, that sat in Menelik Palace under the guise of Ethiopian Flag and Emblem. 

Therefore, when the Pretoria Peace deal is explored properly, quadruple implications can be unearthed from the Pretoria Tripartite Deal that will have ramifications for Ethiopians and Africans. These are: 

1) It has permanent damage on the status and fate of Ethiopia as a country;

2) The peace deal was marking the beginning of the 'Normandy-like' war and Oromo-Uma's invasion against many small tribes in the South and against the core of Ethiopia in the north, namely in Amhara's homestead;

3) It was a deal that Substituted the official Ethiopian National Defense Force ( ENDF), with a new Oromo-Uma army covertly understood as  'Gachena Siirrnnaa';  and

4) The deal, with the help of foreign backers, created alliance between TPLF, Oromo Peoples Democratic Organization (OPDO), that become Oromo Prosperity Party (OPP) and the West, to topple the government in Eritrea. 

For that, it can be called a 'Tripartite Pact' rather than a bipartisan agreement between belligerent actors that are not. The arguments can be elaborated further as follows.

The 'Pretoria Peace Deal': Smoke Screen for A Dramatic Deconstruction of The Territorial Integrity and National Unity of Ethiopia

The Pretoria Peace Deal, signed on November 2, 2022, will change Ethiopia's status as a country and could permanently damage its history. By relating the unfolding in Ethiopia, we can learn the following: One of the fundamental objectives appears to be that TPLF and OPDO/ OPP, through their secretive yet well-publicized agreement, decided to elevate the status of the country's tribal enclaves to statehood. In this plan, Oromia, Tigrai, and Somali regions are evolving into states, a coup-de-grace for fragile Ethiopia. 

On the tomb of Ethiopia, they plan to erect the 'Confederation of Tigray and a Wahabis Islamic Oromuma,' Abiy being its first Cush-Chief. Pretoria's agreement represented a culmination of 70 years of Oromo and Tigre politicians' quest to create their state out of Ethiopia. It is a blueprint for institutionalizing the already placed, artificial states they made in their consecutive governments. The 1990s TPLF's constitution has done a dirty job by mutilating Ethiopia along 'language and tribal' cleavages (in line with the formula laid out by the TPLF's 1978 manifesto); PM Abiy's duty is to materialize it. 

Pretoria' Peace Deal': A Start-Wistel for a'Normandy-Like' Invasion of Amhara Homestead by Oromo Whabists (Led by PM Abiy Ahmed)

The Pretoria' Peace' Deal was not between actual belligerent forces but rather between strategic partners of the above mentioned evil project. The true protagonists, the Amharas, despite they were sandwiched between OPDO and TPLF war, were deliberately excluded from Pretorea negotiation that made the' Peace Deal' everything but a real peace deal. Moreover, part of the strategy was to wage another phase of the same war of genocide on the Amhara people.

Chronologically, the first phase of the war (2019-2022) started with a make-believe' rhetorical fight' between TPLF and Abiy Administration. However, when the actual war began, both cooperated in stabbing Amhara soldiers and Ethiopian people from behind. Instead of marching to Addis Ababa to capture Abiy Ahmed, whom they pretended to be enemies, TPLF soldiers invaded Amhara homesteads with hundreds of thousands of troops mobilization. After massacring the Amharas in the Ethiopian National Defense Force, Northern Command, on March 24, 2020, with a conspiracy of the Oromo commander General, TPLF encroached on the Amhara regions in an attempt to hamulate and eliminate the people that it considered rival. The Amhara people effectively defended and reversed the invasion and made it possible for the Ethiopian National Forces to remove TPLF and control Mekele, the capital of the Tigray province of Ethiopia. The decisive battles took place at QeraraQer, Northern Gondar, Wolkeite, Tsegede, Humera, Raya, and so forth. The TPLF forces suffered a heavy defeat and loss of hundreds of thousands of well-trained and prepared armies (conservative estimates have 600,000 Tigrayans Soldiers lost their life, in the words of former President Olusegun Obasanjo). 

After overseeing the loss of more than 1.2 million people for objectives that were not clear, Abiy Ahmed declared a 'unilateral ceasefire' and resurrected TPLF and Tigray Defense Force (TDF) from their graveyards. He surprised the Ethiopian people and submitted all their victories to TPLF and foreign handlers. The Euphuism was 'peace negotiation'. On the second track to his war projects, PM Abiy Ahmed used disease and famine as mechanisms of genocide and demographic control of Semitic people. 

The second phase of the same protracted war started immediately after the conclusion of Pretoria's 'Peace' Euphuism. PM Abiy declared a state of Emergency and began to massacre civilians with international impunity. The leading actor of the phase I war, TPLF, was blinded by their ambition to take Amhara lands (Wolkait, Humera, Setit, Raya, Telemt, etc.). 

To this day, TPLF is still waging another war in the Amhara region in support of Abiy Ahmed Gragn II's ongoing War of Genocide. If TPLF is allowed to reign beyond Tekeze, the conspiracy to break Ethiopia can be carried out. Therefore, the peace agreement proved to be a declaration of war on Ethiopians rather than an ending to war.

Pretoria Peace Euphuism: An Accord for Regime Change in Eritrea

In Pretoria, the partners of 'the dismantling Ethiopia project' (OPDO/OLF/Oromo Prosperity Party-TPLF and foreign forces)' divided labor among themselves. One of the most significant agendas is to topple the popular Eritrean Government led by President Isayas Afeworki.

For this, on the one hand, TPLF was resurrected from its graveyard and bestowed the task of preparing the tribal enclave of Tigray to be fit to be another new state that would claim parts of Eritrean territories. On the other hand, the agreement guaranteed no interference from the central government, led by Abiy, in the Tigray affairs. The rule of law, accountability for genocide crime in which millions of Ethiopians were made to die, the responsibility for the economic destructions, and many more issues were placed under the carpet with the compliance of the external forces. Here, their mutual understanding is based on 'scratch my back and I scratch yours'; therefore, the job of foreign backers is to give global diplomatic cover and cast blind eyes to the genocide that the remaining parties commit in Ethiopia. 

It seems the Abiy Ahmed government, with impunity from the International Criminal Court (ICC) for his genocidal reign in Ethiopia since 2019, is to go ahead with the age-old plan of militarily crushing the Amhara people's resistance with the view of breaking up the country. 

Because of the rising geopolitical significance of the Red Sea, the West wants to make the Eritrean people kneel and make their country a satellite to the West. Their president has been a stumbling block for such ambition. Therefore, the West's interest in Pretoria Peace Euphuism is to create synergy between the actions of the partners in their project of invading Eritrea and toppling President Isayas from power. 

Amharas and Eritreans, whose destinies are the same and intertwined with contemporary geopolitical realities, are showing resilience and forging a common front to block the concerted campaign against their survival.  The 'Ethiopia needs seaport!' mantra is an indication of the next move of the Abiy-TPLF axis, i.e., the invasion of Eritrea by claiming the Assab region as belonging to Ethiopia. Most strategic analysts believe the remedy is for Eritrea and Amhara Fanos to stick together and wage concerted military defense against the move.    

Eliminating Ethiopian National Army (ENDF) with Pretoria' Peace Deal'

In our eyes, it become common to see the Oromo-Wahabis militias in Addis Ababa streets tearing up the Ethiopian green/yellow/red flag. Arresting anyone who wears it besides Ethiopian former kings, Queens, and leaders who protected the country through their anti-colonial struggle were arrested. On the one hand, Abiy Ahmed echos the 'Ethiopia Atfersem' sarcasm on every podium he steps on to speak; on the other hand, he intensifies the physical destruction of the landmarks of Ethiopian history while the whole of Ethiopia is watching helplessly. This tragedy happens with the moral complacency of many: the West, Africa, and the so-called Ethiopian oppositions, and in the eyes of pretentious Ethiopian 'nationalist' individuals from the diaspora. The above reality suggests that the army's mission, character, nature, and code of conduct are contrary to the values of the Ethiopian state. 

The elephant in the house not Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) in its military fatigues, but a flag-tearing Ethiopian 'Whabis Oromuma's Army' Gachena Siirrna Army' (Mentor Fantahun Wake, 2024). The only armed groups that are allowed to exist in the country. That is why Gragn Mahmed II embarked on disarming Fanos, who are self-defense forces.  The intents are straightforward: without dismantling the Ethiopian National Army (classical ENDF or Fanos), murdering Amharas cannot be achieved. The actors in the Pretoria agreement are calling for disarming Ethiopia's patriotic Fanos, who are defending and protecting their existence from genocide.  The so-called military reform initiative led by Abiy Ahmed replaced existing Ethiopian army officers with predominantly Oromos, along with a select few compliant locals, effectively altering the composition of the armed forces. 

Conclusion

For astute observers of Ethiopian politics, the assertions made above find validation in the unfolding political landscape of the country. TPLF and Oromo politicians, backed by external forces, vigorously champion two concerning aspects in Ethiopia's political, security, and strategic frameworks: the TPLF constitution, which lays the groundwork for Ethiopia's disintegration, and the Pretoria Peace deal, not only ensuring but also outlining the path to achieve it. These elements pose a substantial threat to Ethiopia's sovereignty.

In foreign diplomatic circles and during negotiations, European actors consistently ignore concerns about two politically destabilizing factors for Ethiopia. Why are these parties so vocal about implementing the "Pretoria Peace Deal" and preserving the TPLF's constitution? They understand that without the Praetoria agreement and the TPLF's constitution, the formation of the Tigray Atheist Republic and Oromo Wahabis Republics would not be feasible.

There is a rush on the part of the partners of the Pretoria deal and excitement to see Ethiopia as a failed state. From a call for resettlement in 'Western Tigray' to the completion of the Amhara invasion and embarking on another invasion to the North (towards Eritrea), From a plan to settle close to a million Tigrai army, in the name of 'resettlement of people from Welkait, Tegede, Telemt, Raya, etc.,' to the call for immediate conduct referendum in Amhara territories wanted by TPLF for Tigray independence. The recent TPLF invasion of Raya, Telemt, indicates the last stage of Pretoria's Peace Deal. 

Abiy Ahmed is escalating his bellicose rhetoric against Eritrea, hinting at a potential invasion aimed at regime change. His propaganda machinery has already been activated online, advocating for Ethiopia's necessity for a seaport. Meanwhile, we're witnessing an unprecedented displacement of Amharas and other pro-Ethiopian ethnic groups from Addis Ababa, with Oromos from rural areas being resettled in their place. There's a disturbing trend of illegal seizure of public and private lands by Oromo officials. The objective is clear: to transform Addis Ababa into the capital of a Wahabi Oromuma state while simultaneously establishing a Tigray, Oromuma, and Somali Confederation with Assab Port in the North and Barbara in the South. As discussed earlier, the peace deal poses a grave threat to Ethiopia's sovereignty, territorial integrity, and national unity.

In the current turbulent climate, Abiy Ahmed's administration is fostering instability in Ethiopia. Nonetheless, Ethiopia's resilience is undeniable, and it is deeply rooted in a sense of divine providence. While this belief may carry religious connotations, Ethiopia's enduring existence stands as a testament to the resilience of its people and the inherent strength of its land. Ethiopia will undoubtedly rise again, but its survival hinges on the unity of all Ethiopians. This generation must come together with unwavering determination, mirroring the unyielding spirit of the Amhara Fanos, to confront the threats posed by groups like the Wahabi Oromuma Gachena Siirrnnaa Army. It is also imperative for passive Ethiopians to actively join the effort to resist what is perceived as a 21st-century invasion, spearheaded by figures like Gragn Mohamed II (PM Abiy Ahmed). This rallying call for unity is essential in safeguarding Ethiopia's sovereignty and future.

Ethiopia, revered as a sacred nation, relies on the collaboration of its citizens for its survival. This collaboration is especially crucial for Ethiopian patriots, notably the Fanos, who serve as custodians of Ethiopia's heritage and destiny.

 

By Dr. Gashaw Teshome Mengesha (PhD)

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